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Beneficial Microorganisms: The Essence of Gaia – the Mother Earth

July 13, 2012 Leave a comment

Mother Earth

Gaia – our Mother Nature encompasses all the entire ecosystem of planet Earth.  All living & non-living are interconnected                      with her through one-celled microorganisms- the agent of change, creation and death.

            Microorganisms are involved in all life processes. They produce enzymes for metabolic activities of plants and animals. Cell metabolism occurs in every living cell. Multicellular organisms have an overall metabolism that differs from the metabolism of individual cells. Metabolic pathways form a two-part process; the first part is’Catabolism,’ during which the body processes food to be used for energy. The other part is called, ‘Anabolism,’ where the person’s body uses food in order to either repair or build cells. The metabolic process ceases only when animal or plant dies. 

            Gaia, as Mother Nature, personifies the entire ecosystem of Planet Earth. It is always working to achieve and maintain harmony, wholeness and balance within the environment.  Through the global consciousness of Mother Gaia, all living things on this planet, from their most primordial instincts, are constantly interacting with their environment to ensure the harmony, balance and continuity of Life. Microorganisms are the major drivers of geochemical and biotransformation processes in soil.

             The essence of Gaia is the living microorganisms found in this planet earth. These one-celled entities are like grains of sand, countless and enormous as stars in the universe. They are found everywhere, in living and non-living. They are the essence of Gaia, our mother nature. In its untouched natural habitat, they are part of dynamic system with regulatory and specific function. They are the army of Gaia.

             Plants, both above- and below ground, offer diverse habitats for microbial colonization and growth. Plant-microbe interactions lie at the heart of plant performance and ecology. Plants provide various growth substrates and physical habitats for microbes on both sides of the air-soil interface, and numerous plant-associated niches have been exploited by specific microbial species, either by specializing on the distinct environmental conditions available, or entering into commensal, mutualistic, or parasitic interactions with plants.

            Microorganisms function as catalyst, fixers and carriers not only of nutrients and water but also of light energy from the sun. Plants are able to absorb pure light from the sun needed in the production of food during the process of photosynthesis. These pure lights are absorbed and processed by plants with the aid of microorganism, The army of Gaia. they are the wonder workers, the scientists doing the processing of food in plants. Plants acts as carriers and keepers of solar light, the source of yang energy needed by animals and human beings. Light from any source is a form of energy, and many or most of the living things like plants rely on light to provide the energy they need to do the necessary work of life. This general process goes by the name “photosynthesis,” which means “the making by light.” The energy carried by light is used to make possible reactions that make sugar, which is then used to make other materials in the plant. The food we eat exists because of sunlight falling on green plants, and the fuel we burn comes either from such plants, or was accumulated by them (in the forms of coal, oil and natural gas) long ago. 

            In the 1960s, James Lovelock formulated the Gaia hypothesis. It states that all life, and all living things on this planet, are part of a single, all-encompassing global entity or consciousness which he named Gaia. It is this global consciousness,  Mother Gaia that makes our planet capable of supporting life while our near neighbors in the solar system are barren and lifeless.  In some Gaia theory, the Earth itself is viewed as an organism with self- regulatory functions. Lovelock’s Gaia Hypothesis was widely embraced and passed into common usage as part of the heightened awareness of environmental concerns of the 1990s.  (March, Green 1998)                                

            The way of Mother Gaia is the passive, feminine, Yin way of healing. All we need to do to regain our health is to return to the bosom of Mother Nature and live in accordance with Her laws. The Gaia archetype underlies all notions of the Nature Cure. Mother Nature is a healing goddess.

            The Earth and the Sun have a symbiotic relationship; they are tied together via stellar DNA, always producing a yin and yang. They balance one another on multiple levels. The Sun is the giver of life; it is our elder brother and our father light. The Sun is a portal, which streams info and light emanations from other light systems and worlds above ours. It is a storehouse of vital energies and is considered to be the great heart (McBeth- Louthan).

            Human beings should be nourished by pure light stored in plants to have wholeness and balance. However, pollution and mutation have caused less absorption of pure light from the sun due to disorientation and alienation of function of microorganisms as the entire ecosystem is disrupted and unbalanced. Diseases and pestilence come in different ways as a result of what we eat. Nobody is spared from the ailment of Gaia. As Native Indians saying foretold that whatever befall the earth befalls the sons of the earth. Mankind has not woven the web of life, we are but one thread within it. Whatever we do to the web, we do to ourselves. All things are bound together. All things connect. Chinese proverbs also says,” What is above, so is below”. What is bad or poison to microbes, will also poison man. Microorganisms mutate to survive, so are humans. We are being poisoned by what we eat; by pollution; and our way of life. Yet we survived because our mind and body adapt to the environment.

            According to Kornelia Smalla and Jan Dirk van Elsas, the intricacies of microbial life in soil has been impacted by the advanced, mainly molecularly-based, approaches that have been unleashed on the soil habitat in recent years. The application of molecular and other advanced methods (cultivation-independent analyses) has provided new insights into microbial life in soil.Soil is an extremely diverse and complex habitat containing many microsites and gradients that form a range of different biogeochemical interfaces. The aggregates formed by minerals, soil organic matter, fungal hyphae, roots and plant debris offer a range of potential niches for microorganisms with different lifestyles.

            The vast explosion of high-resolution molecular data in the past few years has provided an unprecedented glimpse into the microbial world enhancing our understanding of current viewpoints and knowledge on microbial ecological theory. Mutualism is responsible for the genesis of green plants and is implicated in their colonization of land. Current knowledge of plant-microorganism symbioses includes a range of associations with different degrees of intimacy and mutual dependence. In concert with the soil’s inorganic and organic constituents, microbes are influential in actively shaping the architecture of the soil matrix by the formation and restructuring of soil aggregates. In addition, the diversity of microbial communities is extremely high in most soils.

               Some researches showed that a key determinant of microbial fitness in the soil is the ability of microbial cells to fine-tune their cellular metabolism to the abiotic and biotic conditions that prevail locally while other studies tried to enhance the rate of adaptation of microorganisms in a changing environmental conditions by horizontal gene transfer processes but these only add to the deterioration of the microbial ecological balance in the soil.

            Gaia is weakened by pollution, excessive fertilization and deforestation. The army of Gaia had lost its harmony and balance due to mutation, a form of self-defense and adaptation. Mutations had resulted to disorientation and alienation to its regulatory functions. Mutation had caused ripple effect on everything – causing complex diseases and pestilence to animals, plants and human beings. The power of Mother Nature to heal, nurture and support all life on this planet had weakened.

            There’s a need for spiritual fire that promotes a communal commitment to a worldwide environmental undertaking. Native or primal ways will fuel that fire and give it great power.  Live in a balance with Mother Nature and health and healing are yours; violate Her laws and get out of balance, and you pay the price in suffering and disease. In this sense, all medicine and healing can be seen as a system of ecology interconnected with the microbial ecology balance of the earth, the Mother nature. Let there be awareness among all mankind.   

            Let us protect and restore the natural habitat of our environment and help Gaia in restoring its healing power for harmony and wholeness. Mother Nature heals, nurtures and supports all life on this planet, and ultimately all life and health depend on Her. In time, Nature heals all ills. Make our soil free from pollutants and excessive fertilization. Make our rivers and other bodies of water free from contamination and heavy metals. Let fishes, shrimps and other cold-bloodied animals thrive in our fields and fresh waters like rivers and lakes. Let the frogs and tadpoles be plentiful in this planet earth. They are the best  indicators of clean and healthy environment. As “Life is flowing from the breath field, prana will bring us living energy.”

            Einstein told us that we need a higher level of thinking to get ourselves out of the mess than the thinking that got us into the mess. Stephen Covey tells us that in such situations as we are in today we need a quantum change that can only be brought about by a completely new paradigm. Our current way of living is the paradigm that got us into the mess.

            “Humankind has not woven the web of life. We are one thread within it. Whatever we do to the web, we do to ourselves. All things are bound together. All things connect. (Chief Seattle_)

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Application of Beneficial Microorganisms (BMO Puree Concentrate) for Fertility Program of Rice and Sugarcane fields – by Dr. Teresita O. Macuro

August 26, 2010 2 comments

Sugarcane lit

SUSTAINABLE ORGANIC FARMING

Organic farming has to be understood as part of a sustainable farming system and a viable alternative to the more traditional approaches to agriculture. Sustainable development must encompass food production alongside conservation of finite resources and protection of the natural environment so that the needs of the people today can be met without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs.

Introduction

Organic agriculture respects nature and its vitality. It aims to create an ecologically safe system of food production. It is a comprehensive approach that aims to create sustainable ecosystem, safe food, animal welfare and better livelihood opportunities for farmers. It covers all kinds of food and fibre production system and can be defined as chemical-free farming system with an objective to produce food of  high nutritional value.

Organic agriculture and environmental protection concept has been heavily promoted worldwide in recent years which benefits the promotion of biofertilizer. The application of biofertilizer can help sustain the balance of the ecosystem and reduce environmental pollution.

Biofertilizer refers to products using live organisms as expanded definition fertilizer. Today’s main biofertilizer product is specified fertilizer additives that include live organisms or dormant spores, e.g. bacteria and fungi. When applied onto crops, it has the effect of supplying specific nutrition to plants as microbial fertilizer. Its application does not have negative effects on the environment but can replace some of the chemical fertilizers and thus claimed as irreplaceable fertilizer for agriculture’s sustained development and organic farming. Thus, ecosystem is ecologically balanced in proportion with microbial population in the soil.

The focus of biofertilizer in the country today is more on the composting of waste materials (utilizing decomposers as inoculants) to produce bioorganic fertilizer. However, other countries, such as Taiwan, China, India and the US utilize live microorganisms as a new trend in the development of biofertilizer. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria, hormone/enzyme-producing bacteria, phosphorus-releasing bacteria, mycorrhizal fungi and growth-stimulating fungi need worth investing talents and resources for in-depth research and for development of high quality production technology.

Manufacturers are almost small and medium size enterprises. These businesses are still pioneering and are often short on capital, small in production scale, difficult to attract high level R & D talent, and needs to be facilitated and integrated. Biofertilizer is manufactured through the conventional liquid and powder production methods.

Hence, the development of the biofertilizer industry is the initial step towards organic farming and the key towards fertilizer reduction or the minimal use of chemical fertilizer and pesticides.

Rationale

The unabated and continued use of chemical fertilizer had caused serious damage to the soil’s fertility such as soil acidification, high concentration of nitrates deposits, highly densed and compacted soil thus poisoning its micro flora (reduction of microbial population), and causing plants to lose their resistance. High concentration of chemical residues makes the soil less fertile in terms of availability of nutrients to plants. Beneficial microorganisms are responsible for the processing (mineralization process) of inorganic compounds to organic compounds. Microbial synergism is an important factor in the catalytic metabolism of plants. Micro-nutrients (as cofactor) and macro-nutrients are processed into assimilable form (organic) by beneficial microorganisms in highly densed microbial population.

These beneficial microorganisms (BMO’s) are photosynthetic bacteria which produce hormones, enzymes, and green fluorescent proteins (GFP) which act as carriers and catalysts for the easy and speedy assimilation of nutrients by plants. These BMO’s proliferate and form colonies in roots as nitrogen fixers, soil enhancers, phosphorus releasing and enhance the water absorbing capacities of plants.

Other microbial population beneficial to plants are mycorrhizal fungi. The use of mycorrhizal fungi forms symbiotic associations with over 90% of the world’s plant species. The relationship is particularly important for agricultural plants that have large recruitment for nutrients and water to achieve optimum yields. The mycorrhizal fungi excrete powerful chemicals that dissolve mineral nutrients, absorb water, retard soil pathogens, and glue soil particles into porous structures.

Both agricultural plants and fungus benefit from the “symbiotic relationship.” Mycorrhizal plants are often more resistant to diseases such as those cause by microbial soil-based pathogens, and are also more resistant to the effects of drought. These effects are perhaps due to the improved water and mineral uptake in mycorrhizal plants.

Research has documented improved plant nutrient and water uptake and resistance to a wide range of environmental extremes. Plants establish and yield more abundantly and require less intensive care. This is a major reason why plants from natural undisturbed areas can thrive without irrigation, fertilizer and pesticides.

BMO PROTEIN/ENZYME LIQUID FERTILIZER

BMO liquid fertilizer is a mixture of beneficial microorganisms (bacterial isolates in pure form) which produced  proteins, hormones and enzymes as by-products. BMO liquid fertilizer is used as additives in the fertility program of the soil  to  increase the population of good and beneficial microorganisms in the soil. Harmful and pathogenic microorganisms will be rendered inactive in the soil by large population of BMO puree. The increase in population of beneficial bacterial colonies enhances humus build-up and CO2 – O2 exchange. Thus, making BMO liquid fertilizer an effective soil conditioner by enhancing soil homogeneity.

Synergism and mineralization will take effect which are beneficial to crops by increasing the tonnage production of rice and sugarcane. BMO liquid fertilizer uses live microorganisms, which when applied onto crops has the effect of supplying specific nutrition to plants. These effects include enhancing the supply volume of plants’ nutritional elements and stimulate plants’ absorption of these nutritional elements which are needed  for the growth of plants.

BMO liquid fertilizer acts as nitrogen-fixers and  increase the water-holding capacity of plants. It also protects plants from pests and diseases. Thus, BMO liquid fertilizer helps sustain the balance of the ecosystem and reduce environmental pollution.

METHODOLOGY

A. Materials

Protocol 1                                           Protocol 2                            Protocol 3

5 gallons BMO                                5 gallons BMO                      5 gallons BMO

20 gallons water                         20 gallons water                  20 gallons water

3 to 5 bags urea                           3 to 5 bags urea                    3 – 5 bags urea

2 bags 18 – 46                                3 to 5 bags calphos             2 -3 bags calphos

1 – 2 liters EM                                 1-2 liters EM(molasses based)

B. Mixing Proportion and Rate of Application

To 5 gallons of BMO, add 20 gallons of water. The mixture should be  used or sprayed within 24 hours. For EM (Efficient microorganisms in molasses solution), it is also directly mixed with water and BMO. EM has plentiful of yeast which serves as food for beneficial microorganisms. BMO is applied or sprayed to the field three times per cropping.

C. Procedure

Apply 5 gallons of BMO during planting for new plant or after stubble shaving for ratoon. Spray directly to the cane points. First dose of fertilizer could be applied after a month.

Second spraying of BMO is done 45 -50 days after planting, and the third spraying is done 3 to 5 days after closing the field.

Detrashing is recommended after 6 months for faster or early maturing of plants. At nine months, the brix of the cane should be taken to monitor the sugar content  and for maturity detection.

Apply the BMO only after weeding the field. The weeds may compete with cane plants for the nutrients, enzyme and protein provided by BMO’s. No insecticide and pesticide will be applied when using BMO’s.

Sugarcane: BMO Puree is best for ratoons. Apply BMO puree,  20 -25 days after stubble shaving. Then, apply again together with chemical fertilizer 0ne & a half months after the first spraying. Spray BMO puree for the third time, 3 t0 5 days after closing the farm.The application of BMO puree in sugarcane farming will increase the production with good farm management.

For Rice: Apply 5 to 10 gallons of BMO per hectare, a month after planting and the 2nd spraying is done during the milking stage to protect the grains from insects. BMO puree acts as organic insecticide for growing palay. At milking stage, insects are prevented from sipping the juice or milk of the grain. As a result, palay grains are heavier and thick. It also enhances the maturity period by 5 to 7 days. BMO puree increases rice production by 40 to 50 percent with good management and minimal application of chemical fertilizer (1-2 bags per hectare). Good quality and heavier grains are produced (100 to 150 cavans per hectare).

The Effect of BMO Puree on the Ecology and Chemistry of the Soil

Beneficial microorganisms (acetobacteria, azospirillum and azotobacteria) are responsible for the ecological chemistry in the soil conducive for high tonnage production of rice and sugarcane. These microorganisms produce green-fluorescent protein (miracle protein). GFP are enzymes which act as catalyst for faster transport and assimilation of nutrients by the plants.They are important components in the metabolism of plants. Each specie of bacteria ( red, yellow, white, orange , violet, etc.) has each specific/respective function in plant metabolisms. Some are nitrogen  and moisture fixers, others are responsible for the mineralization of inorganic nutrients into organic and assimilable form. They could also be used as pesticides/insecticides. They are effective as natural and organic pesticides for rice and sugarcane.

Synergy among bacterial population and some co-factors are responsible for the transformation and production of green fluorescent protein (miracle protein) in the soil. GFP hastens the genetic build-up of plants, enhance resistance to diseases, enrich the sweetness and aroma/flavor, and causes early maturity of plants.  As studied, GFP production took place within three to five months as in the case of sugarcane farming. Thus, it is favorable to still spray BMO puree to the field up to the fifth or sixth month. For rice, up to the milking stage.

Bacteria are live microorganisms. They also need food/nutrients to survive. For them to perform their functions, they have to be feed up to the 5th or 6th month by spraying BMO nutrient to sugarcane and for rice up to the 20th day before harvest. Without added nutrient, they either become dormant(die) or compete with plants for nutrients. The mainstream goal is for continuous  produce of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) up to the 6-7 months. Addition of BMOs render the non-beneficial and pathogens minimal and dormant in the soil, allowing the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms  and perform their respective functions.

Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is important in genetic metabolism of plants  for firm roots; big, upright and erect body/trunk; and high sucrose sugarcane. Sugarcane produced  characteristics: 3-inches diameter;  with more than 20 nodes of 6-8 inches length per node; and  sweetness of 25 to 30 Brix on maturity.  Tonnage production could reach 150 to 250 tons per hectare and PS/TC : 2.5 – 3.0

Environmental Effect of BMO Puree

In the process of BMO puree preparation, the mixture of hormones, enzymes and other proteins produced during the process has a cooling effect on the environment. The thermostat set at a fixed temperature was lowered by 2 to 3 degrees Centigrade. The production of Green Fluorescent Protein is very important in the BMO puree preparation. It signals that the bacterial isolates used in the process become ‘One’ or the genetic modification is successful and complete. After this, different variations occured and observed up to the tenth month. From green, it became blue, red and violet showing different stages or lifespan. The temperature of the solution was much lower and stronger to effect a decrease in the temperature of the thermostat. Hence, this researcher concludes that the BMO puree has a cooling effect on the environment.

Fertilizers and pesticides applied to farmlands destroyed and killed large population of useful and beneficial microorganisms in the soil. Pesticide compound (atropine) used is linked to the growth of tiny parasites that sickens and kill frogs and other amphibians. The impact of this chemical is boosted in the wild by large dose of phosphate fertilizers (calphos) due to plentiful residues. The reduced population of amphibians (frogs) and beneficial microorganisms in our farmlands may contributed to global warming . A massive slump in American frog population (1990’s) is mirrored by shrinking population of amphibians elsewhere in the world. Global warming inflicting a loss of wetland habitat has been blamed also as one of the causes (AFP).

Erosion, trash burning, excessive chemical fertilization & pesticides not only reduced microbial population but also make our soil poisonous, heterogeneous and hot. Mudpress and compost may contribute or enhance the organic matter of the soil but contains large population of heterogeneous (harmful and beneficial) microorganisms. They also  contain large metallic residues which may contribute to the toxicity of the soil. Metals such as lead, mercury, arsenic, iron, etc., found in the soil may be poisonous to beneficial microorganisms. Thus, a small percentage of mudpress should be added to the soil.  The key to productive soil is plentiful population of beneficial over harmful microorganisms.

The Effect of BMOs on Soil Chemistry

The addition of plentiful amount of beneficial microorganisms had a great effect on the chemistry of the soil. They change the texture, color and the chemical content of the soil. Beneficial microorganisms are effective nutrient fixers as they increase the nitrogen, calcium, phosphorous,  potassium, and other nutrients  of the soil. They produce hormones needed not only in plant metabolism but also in DNA changes and repair. In mysterious and many ways, these BMO’s  could protect and repair damage done by pests and other harmful microorganisms present in the soil. Toxic and damaged soil are characterized by the presence of heavy metals and other chemical residues.  Microorganisms that thrive in this kind of soil are pathogens or mutant microorganisms ( due to their adaptation to the toxicity of the soil). Healthy and fertile soils are porous and less dense. They are black, crisp, smooth and cool to touch. BMO’s give energy and life to the soil; likewise,  soils give energy and life to plants; and plants give energy and life to all living things. Synergism is the key to fruitful and bountiful living. It’s a universal law that governs all life; and the balanced proportion would result into beauty and harmony of form. With synergy, healthy soils will have symmetry of macro and micro nutrients needed by plants, i.e. balanced and proportionate composition.  If the symmetry of the environment  will be felt – the ‘cooling phenomena’  then the symphony of BMO’s is already heard.

The GAIA Hypothesis  On Environmental Awareness

In the 1960s, James Lovelock formulated the Gaia hypothesis. It states that all life, and all living things on this planet, are part of a single, all-encompassing global entity or consciousness which he named Gaia. It is this global consciousness that makes our planet capable of supporting life,   while our near neighbors in the solar system are barren and lifeless.   Through the global consciousness of Mother Gaia, all living things on this planet, from their most primordial instincts, are constantly interacting with their environment to ensure the harmony, balance and continuity of Life.

The hypothesis proposes that living organisms and inorganic material are part of a dynamic system that shapes the Earth‘s biosphere, and maintains the Earth as a fit environment for life. The essence of Gaia is the living microorganisms found in this planet earth. These one-celled entities are like grains of sand, countless and enormous as stars in the universe. They are found everywhere, in living and non-living. They are the essence of Gaia, our mother nature. In its untouched natural habitat, they are part of dynamic system with regulatory and specific function. They are the army of Gaia.

Gaia as Mother Nature, personifies the entire ecosystem of Planet Earth. It is always working to achieve and maintain harmony, wholeness and balance within the environment. However, Gaia is weakened by pollution, excessive fertilization and deforestation. The army of Gaia had lost its harmony and balance due to mutation, a form of self-defense and adaptation. Mutations had resulted to disorientation and alienation to its regulatory functions. Mutation had caused ripple effect on everything – causing complex diseases and pestilence to animals, plants and human beings. The power of Mother Nature to heal, nurture and support all life on this planet had weakened.

The Earth and the Sun have a symbiotic relationship; they are tied together via stellar DNA, always producing a yin and yang. They balance one another on multiple levels. The Sun is the giver of life; it is our elder brother and our father light. The Sun is a portal, which streams info and light emanations from other light systems and worlds above ours. It is a storehouse of vital energies and is considered to be the great heart (MCBeth-Louthan).

These vital energies as  pure lights are absorbed and processed by plants with the aid of microorganism, the army of Gaia. They are the wonder workers, the scientists doing the processing of food in plants. With the help of microorganisms, plants are able to absorb pure light from the sun needed in the production of food during the process of photosynthesis. Plants acts as carriers and keepers of solar light, the source of yang energy needed by animals and human beings.  Human beings should be nourished by pure light stored in plants to have wholeness and balance. However, pollution and mutation have caused less absorption of pure light from the sun due to disorientation and alienation of function of microorganisms and the entire ecosystem is disrupted and unbalanced. Diseases and pestilence come in different ways as a result of what we eat. Nobody is spared from the ailment of Gaia.

Let us protect and restore the natural habitat of our environment and help Gaia in restoring its healing power for harmony and wholeness. Mother Nature heals, nurtures and supports all life on this planet, and ultimately all life and health depend on Her. In time, Nature heals all ills. Make our soil free from pollutants and excessive fertilization. Make our rivers and other bodies of water free from contamination and heavy metals. Let fishes, shrimps and other cold-bloodied animals thrive in our fields and fresh waters like rivers and lakes. Let the frogs and tadpoles be plentiful in this planet earth. They are the best  indicators of clean and healthy environment.

“Life is flowing from the breath field and prana bringing us living energy.”

 

 

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